Pharmacology

Penicillin V four times daily for five days versus three times daily for 10 days in patients with pharyngotonsillitis caused by group A streptococci: randomised controlled, open label, non-inferiority study – The BMJ (free)

 

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Oral Lefamulin vs Moxifloxacin for Early Clinical Response Among Adults With Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia: The LEAP 2 Randomized Clinical Trial – JAMA (free for a limited period)

Editorial: Lefamulin—A New Antibiotic for Community-Acquired Pneumonia (free for a limited period)

 

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Should antidepressants be used for major depressive disorder? – BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine (free)

Related Meta-analysis: Comparative efficacy and acceptability of 21 antidepressant drugs for the acute treatment of adults with major depressive disorder: a systematic review and network meta-analysis – The Lancet (free)

Related Commentary: Do Antidepressants Work? – The New York Times (10 articles per month are free)

“Generally, all the previous reviews show that antidepressants seem to have statistically significant effects on depressive symptoms, but the size of the effect has questionable importance to most patients.”

 


Commentaries: Dapagliflozin in Patients With Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction – DAPA-HF – American College of Cardiology (free) Dapagliflozin reduces death and hospitalisation in patients with heart failure – European Society of Cardiology (free)

 

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Effect of High-Dose Vitamin D Supplementation on Volumetric Bone Density and Bone Strength: A Randomized Clinical Trial – JAMA (free for a limited period)

Commentary: High-Dose Vitamin D Might Reduce Bone Mineral Density – NEJM Journal Watch (free)

 

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Identifying optimal doses of heart failure medications in men compared with women: a prospective, observational, cohort study – The Lancet (link to abstract – $ for full-text)

 

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Association between vitamin D supplementation and mortality: systematic review and meta-analysis – The BMJ (free)

Related: Meta-Analysis: Vitamin D Not Effective for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention (link to abstract and commentary) AND NICE Guideline: Vitamin D Supplementation (free)

Vitamin D supplementation was not associated with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, or non-cancer, non-cardiovascular mortality. However, Vitamin D supplementation statistically significantly reduced the risk of cancer death by 16%.

 

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Medications Affecting the Biochemical Conversion to Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis – The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (free)

α-Glucosidase inhibitors, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, metformin, orlistat, phentermine/topiramate, and pioglitazone significantly reduced the risk of biochemical conversion to T2DM, whereas statins and nateglinide increased the risk”

 


Perioperative Management of Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Receiving a Direct Oral Anticoagulant – JAMA Internal Medicine (free for a limited period)

Commentary: Study Sheds Light on Stopping and Resuming DOACs in Afib Patients Undergoing Surgery – NEJM Journal Watch (free)

“The DOAC regimens were omitted for 1 day before a low–bleeding-risk procedure and 2 days before a high–bleeding-risk procedure. The DOAC regimens were resumed 1 day after a low–bleeding-risk procedure and 2 to 3 days after a high–bleeding-risk procedure.”

 

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Potential Medicare Savings From Generic Substitution and Therapeutic Interchange of ACE Inhibitors and Angiotensin-II-Receptor Blockers – JAMA Internal Medicine (free for a limited period)

“By maximizing generic substitution and therapeutic interchange, Medicare could have saved approximately $676 million (89.6%) in 2016 and 2017 of the total $754 million spent on these brand-name ACEIs and ARBs during those 2 years”.

 


Oral antihypertensive regimens (nifedipine retard, labetalol, and methyldopa) for management of severe hypertension in pregnancy: an open-label, randomised controlled trial – The Lancet (free)

Commentary: Oral regimen management of acute hypertension in pregnancy – The Lancet (free)

 

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WHO recommends dolutegravir as preferred HIV treatment option in all populations – World Health Organization (free)

 

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New drugs: where did we go wrong and what can we do better? – The BMJ (free)

Commentary: No evidence of added benefit for most new drugs entering German healthcare system – The BMJ (free)

 

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Excess Antibiotic Treatment Duration and Adverse Events in Patients Hospitalized With Pneumonia: A Multihospital Cohort Study – Annals of Internal Medicine (link to abstract – $ for full-text)

Commentary: Pneumonia patients get too many antibiotics – especially as they leave the hospital – University of Michigan (free)

 

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Estimation of Kidney Function in Oncology: Implications for Anticancer Drug Selection and Dosing – Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (free)

“In one retrospective study, approximately one half of kidney function–impaired patients with solid tumors who were receiving a drug that necessitated dose adjustments for kidney function received almost 50% of their prescriptions at standard doses”.

 


Mass Drug Administration for Scabies

28 Jun, 2019 | 07:43h | UTC

Vitamin D Supplementation and Cardiovascular Disease Risks in More Than 83 000 Individuals in 21 Randomized Clinical Trials: A Meta-analysis – JAMA Cardiology (free for a limited period)

Commentaries: The Demise of Vitamin D for Cardiovascular Prevention – JAMA Cardiology (free for a limited period) AND Does Vitamin D Supplementation Provide Cardiovascular Protection? – MPR (free)

 

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Dulaglutide and cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes (REWIND): a double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial – The Lancet (link to abstract – $ for full-text)

Commentary: Dulaglutide Cuts Cardiovascular Risk in Type 2 Diabetes – NEJM Journal Watch (free)

During a median follow-up of 5.4 years, the primary outcome (a composite endpoint of non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes) occurred in 12.0% of participants in the dulaglutide group and in 13.4% of participants in the placebo group (incidence rate of 2.4 per 100 person-years vs 2.7 per 100 person-years in the placebo group).

 


Randomized Trial of Lisinopril Versus Carvedilol to Prevent Trastuzumab Cardiotoxicity in Patients With Breast Cancer – Journal of the American College of Cardiology (link to abstract – $ for full-text)

“In patients with HER2-positive breast cancer treated with trastuzumab, both lisinopril and carvedilol prevented cardiotoxicity in patients receiving anthracyclines.”

 


Review: Menopausal Hormone Therapy

31 May, 2019 | 06:30h | UTC

Menopausal Hormone Therapy – JAMA (free for a limited period)

Podcast: Menopausal Hormone Therapy (free audio)

 


Tramadol for osteoarthritis – Cochrane Library (free)

Summary: Tramadol for osteoarthritis – Cochrane Library (free)

“tramadol alone or in combination with acetaminophen probably has no important benefit on mean pain or function in people with osteoarthritis, although slightly more people in the tramadol group report an important improvement”

 


Deprescribing in Older Adults with Cardiovascular Disease – Journal of the American College of Cardiology (free for a limited period)

Related: Position Statement: Reducing Inappropriate Medication Use & Polypharmacy (several articles and commentaries on the subject)

 

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At $2.1 Million, New Gene Therapy Is The Most Expensive Drug Ever – NPR (free)

See also: No Miracle Drug Should Cost $2.1 Million – Bloomberg Opinion (free) AND This New Treatment Could Save the Lives of Babies. But It Costs $2.1 Million. – The New York Times (10 articles per month are free)

“The price set by the Swiss drugmaker Novartis may be the world’s highest for a single treatment — prompting renewed debate about how society will pay for gene-therapy breakthroughs.” (from the New York Times)

 


Chronic use of tramadol after acute pain episode: cohort study – The BMJ (free)

Commentaries: Risk of Prolonged Use With Tramadol vs Other Short Acting Opioids Examined – MPR (free) AND ‘There really is no safe opioid’: Study finds tramadol isn’t a less addictive painkiller – CBC (free)

 

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Vasopressin in septic shock: an individual patient data meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials – Intensive Care Medicine (free)

“Vasopressin therapy in septic shock had no effect on 28-day mortality”