Pharmacology

Association between vitamin D supplementation and mortality: systematic review and meta-analysis – The BMJ (free)

Related: Meta-Analysis: Vitamin D Not Effective for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention (link to abstract and commentary) AND NICE Guideline: Vitamin D Supplementation (free)

Vitamin D supplementation was not associated with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, or non-cancer, non-cardiovascular mortality. However, Vitamin D supplementation statistically significantly reduced the risk of cancer death by 16%.

 

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Medications Affecting the Biochemical Conversion to Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis – The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (free)

α-Glucosidase inhibitors, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, metformin, orlistat, phentermine/topiramate, and pioglitazone significantly reduced the risk of biochemical conversion to T2DM, whereas statins and nateglinide increased the risk”

 


Perioperative Management of Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Receiving a Direct Oral Anticoagulant – JAMA Internal Medicine (free for a limited period)

Commentary: Study Sheds Light on Stopping and Resuming DOACs in Afib Patients Undergoing Surgery – NEJM Journal Watch (free)

“The DOAC regimens were omitted for 1 day before a low–bleeding-risk procedure and 2 days before a high–bleeding-risk procedure. The DOAC regimens were resumed 1 day after a low–bleeding-risk procedure and 2 to 3 days after a high–bleeding-risk procedure.”

 

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Potential Medicare Savings From Generic Substitution and Therapeutic Interchange of ACE Inhibitors and Angiotensin-II-Receptor Blockers – JAMA Internal Medicine (free for a limited period)

“By maximizing generic substitution and therapeutic interchange, Medicare could have saved approximately $676 million (89.6%) in 2016 and 2017 of the total $754 million spent on these brand-name ACEIs and ARBs during those 2 years”.

 


Oral antihypertensive regimens (nifedipine retard, labetalol, and methyldopa) for management of severe hypertension in pregnancy: an open-label, randomised controlled trial – The Lancet (free)

Commentary: Oral regimen management of acute hypertension in pregnancy – The Lancet (free)

 

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WHO recommends dolutegravir as preferred HIV treatment option in all populations – World Health Organization (free)

 

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New drugs: where did we go wrong and what can we do better? – The BMJ (free)

Commentary: No evidence of added benefit for most new drugs entering German healthcare system – The BMJ (free)

 

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Excess Antibiotic Treatment Duration and Adverse Events in Patients Hospitalized With Pneumonia: A Multihospital Cohort Study – Annals of Internal Medicine (link to abstract – $ for full-text)

Commentary: Pneumonia patients get too many antibiotics – especially as they leave the hospital – University of Michigan (free)

 

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Estimation of Kidney Function in Oncology: Implications for Anticancer Drug Selection and Dosing – Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (free)

“In one retrospective study, approximately one half of kidney function–impaired patients with solid tumors who were receiving a drug that necessitated dose adjustments for kidney function received almost 50% of their prescriptions at standard doses”.

 


Mass Drug Administration for Scabies

28 Jun, 2019 | 07:43h | UTC

Vitamin D Supplementation and Cardiovascular Disease Risks in More Than 83 000 Individuals in 21 Randomized Clinical Trials: A Meta-analysis – JAMA Cardiology (free for a limited period)

Commentaries: The Demise of Vitamin D for Cardiovascular Prevention – JAMA Cardiology (free for a limited period) AND Does Vitamin D Supplementation Provide Cardiovascular Protection? – MPR (free)

 

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Dulaglutide and cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes (REWIND): a double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial – The Lancet (link to abstract – $ for full-text)

Commentary: Dulaglutide Cuts Cardiovascular Risk in Type 2 Diabetes – NEJM Journal Watch (free)

During a median follow-up of 5.4 years, the primary outcome (a composite endpoint of non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes) occurred in 12.0% of participants in the dulaglutide group and in 13.4% of participants in the placebo group (incidence rate of 2.4 per 100 person-years vs 2.7 per 100 person-years in the placebo group).

 


Randomized Trial of Lisinopril Versus Carvedilol to Prevent Trastuzumab Cardiotoxicity in Patients With Breast Cancer – Journal of the American College of Cardiology (link to abstract – $ for full-text)

“In patients with HER2-positive breast cancer treated with trastuzumab, both lisinopril and carvedilol prevented cardiotoxicity in patients receiving anthracyclines.”

 


Review: Menopausal Hormone Therapy

31 May, 2019 | 06:30h | UTC

Menopausal Hormone Therapy – JAMA (free for a limited period)

Podcast: Menopausal Hormone Therapy (free audio)

 


Tramadol for osteoarthritis – Cochrane Library (free)

Summary: Tramadol for osteoarthritis – Cochrane Library (free)

“tramadol alone or in combination with acetaminophen probably has no important benefit on mean pain or function in people with osteoarthritis, although slightly more people in the tramadol group report an important improvement”

 


Deprescribing in Older Adults with Cardiovascular Disease – Journal of the American College of Cardiology (free for a limited period)

Related: Position Statement: Reducing Inappropriate Medication Use & Polypharmacy (several articles and commentaries on the subject)

 

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At $2.1 Million, New Gene Therapy Is The Most Expensive Drug Ever – NPR (free)

See also: No Miracle Drug Should Cost $2.1 Million – Bloomberg Opinion (free) AND This New Treatment Could Save the Lives of Babies. But It Costs $2.1 Million. – The New York Times (10 articles per month are free)

“The price set by the Swiss drugmaker Novartis may be the world’s highest for a single treatment — prompting renewed debate about how society will pay for gene-therapy breakthroughs.” (from the New York Times)

 


Chronic use of tramadol after acute pain episode: cohort study – The BMJ (free)

Commentaries: Risk of Prolonged Use With Tramadol vs Other Short Acting Opioids Examined – MPR (free) AND ‘There really is no safe opioid’: Study finds tramadol isn’t a less addictive painkiller – CBC (free)

 

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Vasopressin in septic shock: an individual patient data meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials – Intensive Care Medicine (free)

“Vasopressin therapy in septic shock had no effect on 28-day mortality”

 


EASL Clinical Practice Guidelines: Drug-induced liver injury – Journal of Hepatology (free)

Related Review: Drug-induced liver injury: recent advances in diagnosis and risk assessment – Gut (free)

 

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Use of vitamin D drops leading to kidney failure in a 54-year-old man – Canadian Medical Association Journal (free)

“Vitamin D toxicity is rare, but clinicians must be aware of the risks of vitamin D use to limit complications related to hypercalcemia”.

 


A Clinical Overview of Off-label Use of Gabapentinoid Drugs – JAMA Internal Medicine (free for a limited period)

Related Meta-Analysis: Anticonvulsants in the Treatment of Low Back Pain and Lumbar Radicular Pain (free study and commentaries)

“Clinicians who prescribe gabapentinoids off-label for pain should be aware of the limited evidence and should acknowledge to patients that potential benefits are uncertain for most off-label uses.”

 


Reexamining Recommendations for Treatment of Hypercholesterolemia in Older Adults – JAMA (free for a limited period)

“This Viewpoint discusses the 2018 ACC/AHA cholesterol management guideline recommendation to consider statin treatment in adults aged >75 years with LDL levels 70-189 mg/dL, arguing that trial evidence does not support it…”

 


FDA approves new nasal spray medication for treatment-resistant depression; available only at a certified doctor’s office or clinic – U.S. Food & Drug Administration (free)

Commentaries: A ketamine-like drug is the first new antidepressant to get FDA approval in years: But it’s also controversial. – Vox (free) AND FDA Approves Intranasal Esketamine as Adjunctive Treatment for Depression – NEJM Journal Watch (free)

“But while some patient and doctor groups are hailing the approval, others aren’t so sure there’s enough evidence to justify it. That’s because the benefits of ketamine and esketamine aren’t yet well-understood. According to the FDA, the drug has only been studied in four clinical trials, three of them lasting just four weeks. And the results were pretty mixed.” (from Vox)

 

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Long-Term Risk of Heart Failure in Breast Cancer Patients After Adjuvant Chemotherapy With or Without Trastuzumab – JACC: Heart Failure (link to abstract – $ for full-text) (via @md_arianemacedo)

Commentary: Long-Term Risk of Heart Failure After Chemotherapy With Trastuzumab – American College of Cardiology (free)

“Trastuzumab treatment is associated with a 2-fold increased risk of late HF compared with chemotherapy treatment alone.”

 


Deprescribing benzodiazepine receptor agonists taken for insomnia: a review and key messages from practice guidelines – Polish Archives of Internal Medicine (free PDF)

Related: Guideline: Deprescribing Benzodiazepines (free guideline and resources) AND Position Statement: Reducing Inappropriate Medication Use & Polypharmacy (several articles and commentaries on the subject)

 

 


A practical guide for pharmacists to successfully implement penicillin allergy skin testing – American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy (free)

“Less than 10% of patients labeled as having a penicillin allergy are confirmed as present upon skin testing. This labeling results in use of alternative antibiotics and thus unwanted adverse consequences including potentiated antimicrobial resistance, increased costs, and worse clinical outcomes.”

 


International Consensus Guidelines for the Optimal Use of the Polymyxins – Pharmacotherapy (free)

Endorsed by the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP), European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID), Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), International Society for Anti‐infective Pharmacology (ISAP), Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM), and Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists (SIDP).

 


American Geriatrics Society 2019 Updated AGS Beers Criteria® for Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use in Older Adults (free)

News Release: For older people, medications are common; AGS Beers Criteria aims to make them appropriate, too (free)

Commentary: AGS: Beers Criteria for Potentially Inappropriate Med Use in Older Adults Updated – MPR (free)

 

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PSA’s Medicine Safety: Take Care – Pharmaceutical Society of Australia (free PDF)

News Release: Problems with medicines behind 250,000 hospital admissions annually (free)

“The report reveals that 250,000 Australians are hospitalised each year, with another 400,000 presenting to emergency departments, as a result of medication errors, inappropriate use, misadventure and interactions. At least half of this could have been prevented.”

 


Are Probiotics Money Down the Toilet? Or Worse? – JAMA (free for a limited period)

Related: Randomized Trials: Probiotics Ineffective Against Gastroenteritis (link to abstract and commentaries) AND Perspective: The Problem with Probiotics (free commentaries) AND Probiotics: Does the Evidence Match the Hype? (link to abstract and commentaries) AND Systematic Review: Harms Reporting in Trials with Probiotics (link to abstract and commentaries)

 


10 Myths About Frusemide

30 Jan, 2019 | 23:31h | UTC

10 myths about frusemide – Intensive Care Medicine (free)

Note: if the above link is paywalled, try this one

 


Implementation of a Health Plan Program for Switching From Analogue to Human Insulin and Glycemic Control Among Medicare Beneficiaries With Type 2 Diabetes – JAMA (link to abstract – $ for full-text)

Commentary: Medicare Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Safely Switched From Analog to Human Insulin, JAMA Study Finds – AJMC (free)

Related: Meta-Analysis: Comparative Benefits and Harms of Basal Insulin Analogues for Type 2 Diabetes (link to abstract and commentaries) AND Retrospective Observational Study: Basal Insulin Analogs vs NPH Insulin for Type 2 Diabetes (link to abstract and commentaries)

“Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) enrolled in a CareMore Health Medicare Part D plan switched from analog to human insulin without significant loss of glycemic control while saving millions for themselves and for the health plan.: (from AJMC)