Contact Precautions for Endemic MRSA and VRE: Time to Retire Legal Mandates

26Jun
2017

Viewpoint: Contact Precautions for Endemic MRSA and VRE: Time to Retire Legal Mandates – JAMA (free)

“Contact precautions are easy to use w a single patient, but burdensome when applied to an entire hospital” (RT @JAMA_current see Tweet)

This viewpoint suggests a more selective use of contact precautions for the control of endemic pathogens.

 

Timely Use of Probiotics in Hospitalized Adults Prevents Clostridium difficile Infection

26Jun
2017

Timely Use of Probiotics in Hospitalized Adults Prevents Clostridium difficile Infection: A Systematic Review With Meta-Regression Analysis – Gastroenterology (free)

Source: EvidenceAlerts (free resource to find articles of interest)

In this meta-analysis including 19 randomized trials, probiotics given within 2 days of the first antibiotic dose (more effective than if started later) reduced the risk of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) by >50% in hospitalized adults. 1 case of CDI would be prevented for every 23−144 patients treated with probiotics when antibiotics are started. “There was no convincing evidence of superior efficacy for any of the tested probiotic formulations, delivery methods (drink or capsule), or probiotic doses”.

 

Efficacy of Recombinant Influenza Vaccine in Adults 50 Years of Age or Older

26Jun
2017

Efficacy of Recombinant Influenza Vaccine in Adults 50 Years of Age or Older – New England Journal of Medicine (link to abstract – $ for full-text)

“Say bye to egg-grown flu vaccine? Recombinant vaccines are a little more effective & much quicker to adapt” (RT @RichardLehman1 see Tweet and brief commentaries on the study)

 

Tamiflu: an expensive lesson in panic stockpiling

26Jun
2017

Genetic sequencing of spinal fluid for diagnosing brain infections?

25Jun
2017

Brain-Invading Tapeworm That Eluded Doctors Spotted by New DNA Test – Scientific American (free)

“Genetic sequencing of spinal fluid hailed as an advance over standard procedures for diagnosing brain infections”

 

Improving Awareness of and Screening for Health Risks Among Sex Workers

23Jun
2017

Guideline summary: Consensus on Surgical Treatment of Infective Endocarditis

23Jun
2017

An update on Zika virus infection

22Jun
2017

An update on Zika virus infection – The Lancet (free registration required)

“Update on Zika virus infection (2017): review focuses on important updates & gaps in the knowledge” (RT @TheLancet see Tweet)

 

Host and viral traits predict zoonotic spillover from mammals

22Jun
2017

Host and viral traits predict zoonotic spillover from mammals – Nature (link to abstract – $ for full-text)

Commentaries: Spillover Beasts: Which Animals Pose The Biggest Viral Risk? – NPR Goats and Soda (free) (RT @NPRGoatsandSoda see Tweet with interesting illustration) AND Bats Are the Number-One Carriers of Disease – TIME Health (free) AND Where in the world will the next emerging disease appear? – CNN (free text and video) AND Bats really do harbor more dangerous viruses than other species – Science (free) AND Whence new plagues? – The Economist (a few articles per month are free)

“The majority of human emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic, with viruses that originate in wild mammals of particular concern”

 

Infection-related microcephaly after the 2015 and 2016 Zika virus outbreaks in Brazil

22Jun
2017

Infection-related microcephaly after the 2015 and 2016 Zika virus outbreaks in Brazil: a surveillance-based analysis – The Lancet (free registration required)

Invited commentary: Risk of Zika-related microcephaly: stable or variable? (free registration required)

Commentary: Study: First Zika microcephaly wave in Brazil was outlier – CIDRAP (free)

See also a Research Letter from the same authors and related commentaries in our March 31st issue (see #4).

“Zika spread rapidly in Latin America. We braced ourselves for a vast international epidemic of Zika-related microcephaly; but when it did not happen we asked ourselves why.” (from invited commentary)

 

WHO toolkit for the care and support of people affected by complications associated with Zika virus

21Jun
2017

Can Zika infection attack the brains of newborns?

21Jun
2017

Antibiotic stewardship reduces the incidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria

20Jun
2017

Association of Adverse Events With Antibiotic Use in Hospitalized Patients

14Jun
2017

Association of Adverse Events With Antibiotic Use in Hospitalized Patients – JAMA Internal Medicine (link to abstract – $ for full-text)

Commentary: Antibiotic-Associated Adverse Events Common – Medscape (free registration required)

“20% of hospitalized patients receiving antibiotics had adverse drug event. Of those, 20% of regimens inappropriate” (RT @PeterPronovost see Tweet)

 

Improving Recognition of Pediatric Severe Sepsis

13Jun
2017

Strategies for Preventing HIV Infection Among HIV-Uninfected Women Attempting Conception with HIV-Infected Men

13Jun
2017

Working while sick

12Jun
2017

Working with influenza-like illness: Presenteeism among US health care personnel during the 2014-2015 influenza season – American Journal of Infection Control (link to abstract – $ for full-text)

Commentaries: Working while sick – ACP Internist (free) AND Health worker survey reveals many work during flu illness – CIDRAP (free)

Over 40% of surveyed health care personnel worked with self-reported influenza-like illness. “To reduce levels of health-worker–associated flu transmission, the researchers said that misconceptions about working while sick and sick leave policies both need to be addressed” (from CIDRAP)

 

Handshake-free zones to prevent infections?

8Jun
2017

Uncovered: an unexpected source of superbugs

8Jun
2017

A New Mindset for Health Security

6Jun
2017

A New Mindset for Health Security – Global Health NOW (free)

“What are governments doing to prevent, identify, and contain infectious disease outbreaks?”

 

Estimates of global, regional, and national morbidity, mortality, and aetiologies of diarrhoeal diseases

5Jun
2017

Italy has introduced mandatory vaccinations – other countries should follow its lead

5Jun
2017

Scientists create a more potent, durable version of vancomycin

4Jun
2017

Diagnostic preparedness for infectious disease outbreaks

4Jun
2017

Prevention of Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection in Nursing Home Residents

4Jun
2017

Drug-Drug Interactions With Statins and HIV Medications

4Jun
2017

Sofosbuvir, Velpatasvir, and Voxilaprevir for Previously Treated HCV Infection

2Jun
2017

Ebola Vaccine Heads To Congo To Help Stop Outbreak

1Jun
2017

Healthcare Providers Shouldn’t Come to Work While Sick, but They Do — Here’s Why

31May
2017

Financing Pandemic Preparedness

30May
2017

Antibiotic therapy for nearly one in four adults with pneumonia does not work

29May
2017

Guidelines on the Management of Intra-Abdominal Infection

26May
2017

Effect of Cephalexin Plus Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole vs Cephalexin Alone on Clinical Cure of Uncomplicated Cellulitis

25May
2017

Human papillomavirus vaccines: WHO position paper

25May
2017

Human papillomavirus vaccines: WHO position paper, May 2017 – World Health Organization Weekly epidemiological record (free PDF)

“WHO update on HPV vaccine. Short summary – it’s very safe, very effective, widespread implementation recommended” (RT @michaelgheadsee Tweet)

 

Time to Treatment and Mortality during Mandated Emergency Care for Sepsis

19May
2017

Time to Treatment and Mortality during Mandated Emergency Care for Sepsis – New England Journal of Medicine (free)

Commentary: Doctors have resisted guidelines to treat sepsis. New study suggests those guidelines save lives – STAT News (free)

“For every hour you delay antibiotics in sepsis, mortality goes up” (RT @CMichaelGibson see Tweet)

“Trauma: Golden Hour

Cardiology: Time is muscle

Neurology: Time is brain

Sepsis: Early antibiotics to survive”

(interesting remark by @CMichaelGibson see Tweet)

 

Italy passes law obliging parents to vaccinate children

19May
2017

Without action on antibiotics, medicine will return to the dark ages

19May
2017

The science behind One Health

18May
2017

Zika virus: Brazil says emergency is over

15May
2017

Management of intra-abdominal infections

15May
2017

Infection in systemic lupus erythematosus

15May
2017

Vector control: time for a planetary health approach

12May
2017

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in India, the Philippines, Russia, and South Africa

11May
2017

Improved life expectancy of people living with HIV

11May
2017

Fever of unknown origin (FUO) revised

9May
2017

CDC updates Zika test guidance for pregnant women

6May
2017

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Guideline for the Prevention of Surgical Site Infection, 2017

5May
2017

World Hand Hygiene Day (May 5th, 2017)

5May
2017

World Hand Hygiene Day (May 5th, 2017)

World Health Organization: SAVE LIVES: Clean Your Hands 5 May 2017 AND Campaign Resources

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Clean Hands Count Campaign (free) AND Hand Hygiene in Healthcare Settings (free)

 

The World Is Not Ready for the Next Pandemic

5May
2017

Trial of Transplantation of HCV-Infected Kidneys into Uninfected Recipients

5May
2017

Correspondence: Trial of Transplantation of HCV-Infected Kidneys into Uninfected Recipients – The New England Journal of Medicine (free)

Transplantation of HCV-infected-kidneys into uninfected recipients seems feasible in this era of direct-acting antiviral agents, maybe shortening waiting times for those willing to take the risk.

 

Urinary catheter care: what does the evidence say?

4May
2017

Urinary catheter care: what does the evidence say? – Cochrane Library (free)

“How frequently should indwelling urinary catheters be changed? Are catheter washouts effective? Which type of catheter reduces rates of urinary tract infection?”. This post look at the evidence regarding urinary catheter care.

 

Updated Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection

3May
2017

Use of antibiotics during pregnancy and risk of spontaneous abortion

2May
2017

Use of antibiotics during pregnancy and risk of spontaneous abortion – Canadian Medical Association Journal (free) (RT @CMAJ see Tweet)

Commentary: Use of Certain Antibiotics in Pregnancy Tied to Spontaneous Abortion – Physician’s First Watch (free)

In this nested case-control study, use of common antibiotics such as macrolides (excluding erythromycin), quinolones, tetracyclines, sulfonamides and metronidazole during early pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion.

 

Women with symptoms of a urinary tract infection but a negative urine culture

2May
2017

Prevalence of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria among nursing home residents

2May
2017

For Pregnant Women, Getting Serious About Whooping Cough

2May
2017

Guidelines for treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis and patient care

1May
2017

World Malaria Day, 25 April 2017 – World Health Organization

26Apr
2017

Azithromycin doesn’t seem to increase the risk of ventricular arrhythmia

26Apr
2017

Cohort study: Use of azithromycin and risk of ventricular arrhythmia – Canadian Medical Association Journal (free)

Source: No Major Azithromycin Arrhythmia Risk in Huge European Cohort – Medscape (free registration required)

Contradicting a previous study (free) and a 2013 safety warning from the US Food and Drug Administration (free), this large cohort did not show an association between azithromycin and ventricular arrhythmia when compared to amoxicillin.

 

Community Mitigation Guidelines to Prevent Pandemic Influenza

25Apr
2017

Guideline: Community Mitigation Guidelines to Prevent Pandemic Influenza – United States, 2017 – CDC – MMWR (free)

Source: New CDC guidelines on flu pandemic measures reflect 2009 lessons – CIDRAP (free)

These new guidelines focus on nonpharmaceutical measures to fight and prevent influenza pandemics.

 

Recommendations on hepatitis C screening for adults

25Apr
2017

Relationship between hospital ward design and healthcare-associated infection rates

25Apr
2017

Relationship between hospital ward design and healthcare-associated infection rates: a systematic review and meta-analysis – Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control (RT @brhospitalist and @PreetiNMalani see Tweet)

Single-patient rooms and easily accessible hand rub dispensers located near the patient’s bed are the most effective measures.

 

Global hepatitis report, 2017 – World Health Organization

24Apr
2017

Report: Global hepatitis report, 2017 – World Health Organization (free)

Press release: New hepatitis data highlight need for urgent global response (free)

Related resources: WHO’s work on Hepatitis (free) AND Global health sector strategy on viral hepatitis, 2016-2021 (free)

The World Health Organization has released the first ever Global Hepatitis Report, with estimates on Hepatitis B and C burden, incidence and mortality. According to the report, deaths from viral hepatitis are increasing, with 1.34 million deaths in 2015, a number comparable to deaths caused by tuberculosis and HIV.

 

Climate Change and Health Reports

21Apr
2017

Australasian Society for Infectious Diseases: low value interventions

20Apr
2017

Australasian Society for Infectious Diseases: low value interventions – The Medical Journal of Australia (free) (RT @ChooseWiselyAU and @ASIDANZ see Tweet)

See also: Choosing Wisely initiative was launched 5 years ago in our April 5 issue.

The society has just released a selection of 5 low value interventions (details in the text):

 

– Prescribing antibiotics for asymptomatic bacteriuria.

– Taking a swab of a leg ulcer without signs of clinical infection and treating the patient with antibiotics against the identified bacteria.

– Treating upper respiratory tract infections with antibiotics.

– Investigation for fecal pathogens in the absence of diarrhea or other gastrointestinal symptoms.

– Ordering multiple serological investigations for patients with fatigue without a clinical indication or relevant epidemiology.

 

Why it’s a bad idea to space out your child’s vaccination shots

19Apr
2017

Why it’s a bad idea to space out your child’s vaccination shots – The Washington Post (a few articles per month are free)

“Splitting immunizations into several visits only increases children’s stress” (RT @IDSAInfo see Tweet)

 

Integrating neglected tropical diseases in global health and development

19Apr
2017

The cross-cutting contribution of the end of neglected tropical diseases to the sustainable development goals

10Apr
2017

The cross-cutting contribution of the end of neglected tropical diseases to the sustainable development goals – Infectious Diseases of Poverty(free) (RT @ghn_news see Tweet)

Related commentary from the author: Impact beyond the neglected (free)

See also: United Nations – Sustainable Development Goals

This review examines how the interventions being used against neglected tropical diseases are contributing to achieving the United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goals.

 

When Globalization Brings Brain-Invading Worms

10Apr
2017

When Globalization Brings Brain-Invading Worms – The Atlantic (free) (RT @PreetiNMalani and @AdrienneLaF)

Infectious diseases are spreading faster and emerging quicker due to globalization.

 

Long-term use of antibiotics and risk of colorectal adenoma

6Apr
2017

Antibiotic-Resistant ‘Superbugs’ Are Here

6Apr
2017

Managing supplies of vaccines is a huge problem

6Apr
2017

We’re at more risk than ever of a global pandemic

5Apr
2017

One in 10 Pregnant Women With Zika in U.S. Have Babies With Birth Defects

5Apr
2017

American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria Adds Topics

4Apr
2017

ACR Appropriateness Criteria Adds Topics, Covers More Clinical Variants Than Ever Before (free)

Browse Appropriateness Criteria Topics (free)

Source: Newswise

This comprehensive guide from American College of Radiology (ACR) covers 230 topics with more than 1,100 clinical indications and has just been updated. It is a very useful resource for doctors in all specialties to guide which exam is most appropriate in each clinical situation.

 

You Should Appreciate Germs

4Apr
2017

Building Next Generation Immunization Supply Chains

3Apr
2017

Building Next Generation Immunization Supply Chains – Vaccine Supplement (free)

News release: Global Immunization Impact Constrained by Outdated Vaccine Delivery Systems, Researchers Say – World Health Organization(free)

See also: Battling Infectious Diseases in the 20th Century: The Impact of Vaccines (free – classic 2015 page with interesting infographics) (RT @stefaniei)

This 29 open access articles are part of a special supplement published in Vaccine to address the challenges of Immunization Supply Chains.

 

The World Is Unprepared for a Global Pandemic

3Apr
2017

Corticosteroids in septic shock

3Apr
2017

Zika Virus Infection and Associated Neurologic Disorders in Brazil

31Mar
2017

Zika Virus Infection and Associated Neurologic Disorders in Brazil – New England Journal of Medicine (free)

See also: Why Were There Fewer Microcephaly Cases from Zika Last Year? – STAT (free)

Source: Global Health NOW Newsletter

In Brazil, there were many fewer cases of microcephaly than expected in 2016. The researchers are trying to find an explanation.

 

Clinical Trials of Therapeutics for the Prevention of Congenital Zika Virus Disease

30Mar
2017

A National Strategy for the Elimination of Hepatitis B and C

30Mar
2017

Antibiotic Therapy versus Appendectomy for Acute Uncomplicated Appendicitis

29Mar
2017

Comparison of Antibiotic Therapy and Appendectomy for Acute Uncomplicated Appendicitis in Children: A Meta-analysis – JAMA Pediatrics(free)

Editorial: Medical Treatment of Pediatric Appendicitis: Are We There Yet? (free)

See also a recent meta-analysis and related commentaries on the same subject (free)

Nonoperative treatment was successful in 90% of cases. Subgroup analysis indicated an increased risk for initial fails and recurrent appendicitis in those with appendicolith.

 

WHO releases new guidance on malaria elimination

28Mar
2017

A framework for malaria elimination – World Health Organization (free) (RT @Onisillos)

News release: WHO releases new guidance on malaria elimination (free)

“Updated 2017 framework gives guidance, tools, activities and strategies to achieve malaria elimination, 10 years on” (RT @MalariaAtlas)

 

Gastric Acid Suppression and Clostridium difficile Infection

28Mar
2017

Association of Gastric Acid Suppression with Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (link to abstract – $ required for full-text)

“Another study that suggests gastric acid suppression may increase risk of recurrent Clostridium difficile” (RT @PreetiNMalani)

 

#WorldTBDay, 24 March 2017

24Mar
2017

 

#WorldTBDay, 24 March 2017 – Highlights from Today’s Campaigns and Resources

 

1 – #WorldTBDay – World Health Organization Campaign (free)

See also: WHO’s work on TB (free)

 

2 – #WorldTBDay – Ethics guidance for the implementation of the End TB strategy 2017 – World Health Organization (free)

News Release: WHO issues ethics guidance to protect rights of TB patients (free)

 

3 – #WorldTBDay – The End TB Strategy – World Health Organization (free)

See also: Implementing the end TB strategy: the essentials (free)

 

4 – #WorldTBDay – Global tuberculosis report 2016 – World Health Organization (free)

News release: WHO report warns global actions and investments to end tuberculosis epidemic are falling far short (free)

 

5 #WorldTBDay – WHO treatment guidelines for drug-resistant tuberculosis (2016 update) – World Health Organization (free)

See also: WHO resources on drug-resistant tuberculosis (free)

 

6 – #WorldTBDay – Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Campaign (free)

 

7 – #WorldTBDay – The epidemiology, pathogenesis, transmission, diagnosis, and management of multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant, and incurable tuberculosis – The Lancet Respiratory Medicine (free registration required)

See also: Decades of TB progress threatened by drug-resistant bacteria, warn experts – The Guardian (free)

“Rise of multi-drug resistant strains of tuberculosis could derail global efforts to eradicate the disease, according to a new report”

 

8 – #WorldTBDay – Open Access Special collection from Elsevier Journals  (free)

 

9 – #WorldTBDay – Clinical management of adults and children with multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis – Clinical Microbiology and Infection (free)

 

10 – #WorldTBDay – Preventing the spread of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and protecting contacts of infectious cases – Clinical Microbiology and Infection (free)

 

Efficacy of Heat-Stable Oral Rotavirus Vaccine

23Mar
2017

Prosthetic joint infection management

23Mar
2017
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