Infectious Diseases

Penicillin V four times daily for five days versus three times daily for 10 days in patients with pharyngotonsillitis caused by group A streptococci: randomised controlled, open label, non-inferiority study – The BMJ (free)


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The global burden of non-typhoidal salmonella invasive disease: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 – The Lancet Infectious Diseases (free)

Invited Commentary: Non-typhoidal salmonella: invasive, lethal, and on the loose (free)


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Multiple-dose versus single-dose ivermectin for Strongyloides stercoralis infection (Strong Treat 1 to 4): a multicentre, open-label, phase 3, randomised controlled superiority trial – The Lancet Infectious Diseases (link to abstract – $ for full-text)


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Oral Lefamulin vs Moxifloxacin for Early Clinical Response Among Adults With Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia: The LEAP 2 Randomized Clinical Trial – JAMA (free for a limited period)

Editorial: Lefamulin—A New Antibiotic for Community-Acquired Pneumonia (free for a limited period)


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Immunogenicity, effectiveness, and safety of measles vaccination in infants younger than 9 months: a systematic review and meta-analysis – The Lancet Infectious Diseases (free)

Related Article: Effect of measles vaccination in infants younger than 9 months on the immune response to subsequent measles vaccine doses: a systematic review and meta-analysis – The Lancet Infectious Diseases (free)

Invited Commentary: Early vaccination: a provisional measure to prevent measles in infants (free)


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C-section babies are missing key microbes – Nature News (free)

Original Study: Stunted microbiota and opportunistic pathogen colonization in caesarean-section birth – Nature (link to abstract – $ for full-text)

Other Commentaries: Babies’ gut bacteria affected by delivery method, Baby Biome project shows – Wellcome Sanger Institute (free) AND Babies born by C-section have more potentially infectious bacteria in their guts – ScienceNews (free)

“UK study provides the best evidence yet that the way infants are born can alter their microbiomes — but the health effects are unclear.”


NICE Guideline: Tuberculosis

13 Sep, 2019 | 08:27h | UTC

What Is Known About Candida auris – JAMA (free for a limited period)

Related: Global Epidemiology of Emerging Candida Auris (reviews and commentaries on the subject)


Chlorhexidine bathing of the critically ill for the prevention of hospital‐acquired infection – Cochrane Library (free)

Summary: Bathing critically ill patients with chlorhexidine to prevent hospital-acquired infections – Cochrane Library (free)

“Due to the very low-certainty evidence available, it is not clear whether bathing with chlorhexidine reduces hospital-acquired infections, mortality, or length of stay in the ICU”


How to start an antimicrobial stewardship programme in a hospital – Clinical Microbiology and Infection (free)


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Effects of maternal influenza vaccination on adverse birth outcomes: A systematic review and Bayesian meta-analysis – PLOS One (free)

Related Research: Cohort Study: Flu Vaccine in Pregnancy Safe for Children and Mothers (free)

Related ACOG Guideline: Influenza Vaccination During Pregnancy (free)

“maternal influenza vaccination is not associated with harmful effects on birth outcomes. The beneficial effects reported from previous studies on preterm birth, low birth weight, and fetal death could not be confirmed.”


2019 update of EULAR recommendations for vaccination in adult patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases – Annals of Rheumatic Diseases (free)


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Long-term macrolide antibiotics for the treatment of bronchiectasis in adults: an individual participant data meta-analysis – The Lancet Respiratory Medicine (link to abstract – $ for full-text)


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The efficacy and safety of inhaled antibiotics for the treatment of bronchiectasis in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis – The Lancet Respiratory Medicine (link to abstract – $ for full-text)


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Intraperitoneal Cefepime Monotherapy Versus Combination Therapy of Cefazolin Plus Ceftazidime for Empirical Treatment of CAPD-Associated Peritonitis: A Multicenter, Open-Label, Noninferiority, Randomized, Controlled Trial – American Journal of Kidney Diseases (link to abstract – $ for full-text)


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Three versus five days of pivmecillinam for community-acquired uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled superiority trial – EClinicalMedicine (free)


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Immunogenicity of Fractional-Dose Vaccine during a Yellow Fever Outbreak — Final Report – New England Journal of Medicine (free)

“These findings support the use of fractional-dose vaccination for outbreak control.”


New Protocol For HIV Prevention Drug Reduces The Number Of Pills Required – Kaiser Health News (free)

Related: British Guidelines on the Use of HIV Pre–exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) (several guidelines on the subject) AND USPSTF Statement: Preexposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of HIV Infection (free guideline and commentaries)

“both organizations now endorse a strategy that requires taking just four pills timed to a specific sexual encounter — two within two to 24 hours before sex and one on each of the two following days… The new strategy, called “2-1-1” or “on-demand” PrEP, is becoming popular overseas but has gotten little traction in the United States thus far.”


Short-course primaquine for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax malaria: a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled non-inferiority trial – The Lancet (free)

Commentary: A shorter course for anti-relapse therapy against vivax malaria – The Lancet (free)


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Distinguishing patients with laboratory-confirmed chikungunya from dengue and other acute febrile illnesses, Puerto Rico, 2012–2015 – PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases (free)

Commentary: Which is it: chikungunya, dengue, or something else? – Univadis (free registration required)

“Significant predictors of chikungunya were joint pain, muscle, bone or back pain, and red conjunctiva when compared to other AFI, and arthritis, joint pain, skin rash, any bleeding, and irritability, when dengue was the comparator group. Chikungunya patients were less likely than AFI and dengue patients to have low platelets, signs of poor circulation, diarrhea, headache, and cough.”


Opinion: Mandate Vaccination with Care

29 Jul, 2019 | 20:01h | UTC

WHO recommends dolutegravir as preferred HIV treatment option in all populations – World Health Organization (free)


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Clinical Practice: Measles

14 Jul, 2019 | 20:05h | UTC

Urinary Tract Infections Affect Millions. The Cures Are Faltering. – The New York Times (10 articles per month are free)

“As the infections become increasingly resistant to antibiotics, some standard treatments no longer work for an ailment that was once easily cured.”


Delayed childhood neurodevelopment and neurosensory alterations in the second year of life in a prospective cohort of ZIKV-exposed children – Nature Medicine (link to abstract – $ for full-text)

News Release: A third of children up to age 3 exposed to Zika in-utero have neurological problems – UCLA (free) AND Maternal Zika infection tied to poor development in 32% of tots – CIDRAP (free)


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Excess Antibiotic Treatment Duration and Adverse Events in Patients Hospitalized With Pneumonia: A Multihospital Cohort Study – Annals of Internal Medicine (link to abstract – $ for full-text)

Commentary: Pneumonia patients get too many antibiotics – especially as they leave the hospital – University of Michigan (free)


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Global burden of latent multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: trends and estimates based on mathematical modelling – The Lancet Infectious Diseases (free)

Commentaries: The burden of latent multidrug-resistant tuberculosis – The Lancet Infectious Diseases (free)


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Clinical Update: Syphilis

30 Jun, 2019 | 17:53h | UTC

Causes of severe pneumonia requiring hospital admission in children without HIV infection from Africa and Asia: the PERCH multi-country case-control study – The Lancet (free)

Commentaries: What the PERCH study means for future pneumonia strategies – The Lancet (free) AND Study: Viruses cause most global pediatric pneumonia – CIDRAP (free)


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IDSA Draft Lyme Disease Guidelines

30 Jun, 2019 | 17:48h | UTC

Mass Drug Administration for Scabies

28 Jun, 2019 | 07:43h | UTC

Population-level impact and herd effects following the introduction of human papillomavirus vaccination programmes: updated systematic review and meta-analysis – The Lancet (link to abstract – $ for full-text)

Commentaries: Vaccination programs substantially reduce HPV infections and precancerous cervical lesions – Laval University (free) AND Hopes raised of cervical cancer eradication – BBC (free) AND Study shows major real-world impact of cervical cancer vaccines – Reuters (free)


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Mapping the global prevalence, incidence, and mortality of Plasmodium falciparum, 2000–17: a spatial and temporal modelling study – The Lancet (free)

Related Study: Mapping the global endemicity and clinical burden of Plasmodium vivax, 2000–17: a spatial and temporal modelling study – The Lancet (free)

Invited Commentary: New malaria maps (free)

News Release: New High-Resolution Global Maps Show How to Defeat Malaria – The Malaria Atlas Project (free)

See also: The Malaria Atlas Project Website (free resources) AND Explorer Tool (free)


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Wellcome Global Monitor How does the world feel about science and health? (free PDF)

Report Summary: Wellcome Global Monitor 2018 (free)

News Release: How much does the world trust medical experts and vaccines? (free)

Commentaries: Japan and Ukraine most likely to doubt safety of vaccines – Nature (free) AND Global trust strong in healthcare, scientists, vaccines—with exceptions – CIDRAP (free) AND Eroding trust in vaccines leaves populations vulnerable, global study finds – Reuters (free) AND Vaccines: Low trust in vaccination ‘a global crisis’ – BBC (free)


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