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NEWS - Infectious Diseases

Fluoroquinolones and the risk of aortopathy: A systematic review and meta-analysis – International Journal of Cardiology (free)

“…current fluoroquinolone use was significantly associated with increased risk of aortic aneurysm and dissection.”

 


Prednisone for the Prevention of Paradoxical Tuberculosis-Associated IRIS – New England Journal of Medicine (free)

“Prednisone treatment during the first 4 weeks after the initiation of ART for HIV infection resulted in a lower incidence of tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome than placebo, without evidence of an increased risk of severe infections or cancers.”

 


Diagnostic value of symptoms and signs for identifying urinary tract infection in older adult outpatients: Systematic review and meta-analysis – The Journal of Infection (free)

“A number of symptoms and signs typically associated with UTI, such as nocturia, urgency and abnormal vital signs, were of limited use in older adult outpatients.”

 


Prophylactic antibiotic therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) – Cochrane Library (free)

Summary: Preventative antibiotic therapy for people with COPD – Cochrane Library (free)

“Use of continuous and intermittent prophylactic antibiotics results in a clinically significant benefit in reducing exacerbations in COPD patients.”

 


Efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of herpes zoster vaccines in adults aged 50 and older: systematic review and network meta-analysis – The BMJ (free)

“Using the adjuvant recombinant subunit vaccine might prevent more cases of herpes zoster than using the live attenuated vaccine, but the adjuvant recombinant subunit vaccine also carries a greater risk of adverse events at injection sites.”

 


Decontamination Strategies and Bloodstream Infections With Antibiotic-Resistant Microorganisms in Ventilated Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial – JAMA (free for a limited period)

Editorial: Decontamination of Oral or Digestive Tract for Patients in the Intensive Care Unit (free for a limited period)

“Among patients receiving mechanical ventilation in ICUs with moderate to high ABX resistance prevalence, use of chlorhexidine mouthwash, selective oropharyngeal decontamination, or selective digestive tract decontamination was not associated with reductions in ICU-acquired bloodstream infections caused by MDRGNB vs standard care” (via @JAMA_current see Tweet with visual abstract)

 


Antibiotics May Soon Become Useless. Now What? – WIRED (a few articles per month are free)

 


Shingrix: A New Vaccine for Shingles – Therapeutics Initiative (free)

“Need to vaccinate 31 people to prevent one instance of HZ; Need to vaccinate 358 people to prevent one instance on post herpetic neuralgia” (via @amtejani)

 


The Case For Expensive Antibiotics – WIRED (a few articles per month are free) (via @CarlosdelRio7)

 


Probiotic Safety—No Guarantees – JAMA Internal Medicine (free for a limited period)

Related: Probiotics: Does the Evidence Match the Hype? (free articles and commentaries) AND Systematic Review: Harms Reporting in Trials with Probiotics (link to abstract and commentaries)

 


Antibiotics for acute rhinosinusitis in adults – Cochrane Library (free for a limited period)

Summary: Antibiotics for sinus infection of short duration in adults – Cochrane Library (free)

“Considering antibiotic resistance, and the very low incidence of serious complications, we conclude there is no place for antibiotics for people with uncomplicated acute rhinosinusitis.”

 


Screening for Syphilis Infection in Pregnant Women: US Preventive Services Task Force Reaffirmation Recommendation Statement – JAMA (free)

Editorial: Congenital Syphilis—Still a Shadow on the Land (free)

“The USPSTF recommends early screening for syphilis infection in all pregnant women. (A recommendation)”

 


Primary antifungal prophylaxis for cryptococcal disease in HIV‐positive people – Cochrane Library (free for a limited period)

Summary: Preventing cryptococcal disease in HIV-positive people – Cochrane Library (free)

“Antifungal prophylaxis reduced the risk of developing and dying from cryptococcal disease. Therefore, where CrAG screening is not available, antifungal prophylaxis may be used in patients with low CD4 counts at diagnosis and who are at risk of developing cryptococcal disease.”

 


Extended antibiotic infusions could save lives: Here’s how to do it – PulmCCM (free)

Related Research: Mortality lower with prolonged vs. short-term IV infusion of antipseudomonal beta-lactams (free)

“The simplest (and cheapest) technique is simply to reduce the time between doses.”

 


Seven days of antibiotics were as good as 14 for gram-negative bacteremia – PulmCCM (free)

Related Commentary: Seven-day antibiotic course delivers similar outcomes to 14-days for Gram-negative bacteraemia – European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, via EurekAlert (free)

“It’s important to note that source control was believed to be achieved in all enrolled patients. If source control cannot be achieved (e.g., an abscess, or an infected heart valve or indwelling catheter that cannot safely be removed), prolonged antibiotic courses are often advisable.”

 


Rotavirus Vaccination and the Global Burden of Rotavirus Diarrhea Among Children Younger Than 5 Years – JAMA Pediatrics (free)

“Rotavirus-associated mortality has decreased by 48.2% in children under 5 between 1990 and 2016” (via @IHME_UW see Tweet with infographics)

 


Anti-Vaccine Activists Have Taken Vaccine Science Hostage – The New York Times (10 articles per month are free)

“Should researchers not publish findings when there’s a chance they might be misinterpreted and scare the public?” (via @NYTHealth see Tweet)

 


Increasing tolerance of hospital Enterococcus faecium to handwash alcohols – Science Translational Medicine (link to abstract – $ for full-text)

Commentaries: Study finds increased alcohol tolerance in common hospital pathogen – CIDRAP (free) AND Superbugs now also becoming resistant to alcohol disinfectants – Reuters (free) AND Some Bacteria Are Becoming ‘More Tolerant’ Of Hand Sanitizers, Study Finds – NPR (free)

“Researchers found that E faecium isolates collected in 2 Australian hospitals after 2009 were 10x more tolerant to alcohol than those collected before 2004, and that the date of isolation was a much better predictor of survival than the genotype” (via @CIDRAP_ASP see Tweet)

 


Reports from the task force on tropical diseases by the World Federation of Societies of Intensive and Critical Care Medicine:

Sepsis in tropical regions

Intensive care in severe malaria

Dengue fever

Ebola virus disease

Leptospirosis

Zika virus

Chikungunya

Source: Critical Care Reviews Newsletter

 


Antibiotics should be restricted for COPD – National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (free)

Commentaries: Antibiotics should be restricted for COPD, says NICE – OnMedica (free) AND UK officials recommend limits on antibiotics for COPD – CIDRAP (free)

“The draft antimicrobial guidance recommends that antibiotics should be offered to people who have a severe flare up of symptoms, also known as a severe acute exacerbation”

 


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