Infectious Diseases

Three versus five days of pivmecillinam for community-acquired uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled superiority trial – EClinicalMedicine (free)


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Immunogenicity of Fractional-Dose Vaccine during a Yellow Fever Outbreak — Final Report – New England Journal of Medicine (free)

“These findings support the use of fractional-dose vaccination for outbreak control.”


New Protocol For HIV Prevention Drug Reduces The Number Of Pills Required – Kaiser Health News (free)

Related: British Guidelines on the Use of HIV Pre–exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) (several guidelines on the subject) AND USPSTF Statement: Preexposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of HIV Infection (free guideline and commentaries)

“both organizations now endorse a strategy that requires taking just four pills timed to a specific sexual encounter — two within two to 24 hours before sex and one on each of the two following days… The new strategy, called “2-1-1” or “on-demand” PrEP, is becoming popular overseas but has gotten little traction in the United States thus far.”


Short-course primaquine for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax malaria: a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled non-inferiority trial – The Lancet (free)

Commentary: A shorter course for anti-relapse therapy against vivax malaria – The Lancet (free)


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Distinguishing patients with laboratory-confirmed chikungunya from dengue and other acute febrile illnesses, Puerto Rico, 2012–2015 – PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases (free)

Commentary: Which is it: chikungunya, dengue, or something else? – Univadis (free registration required)

“Significant predictors of chikungunya were joint pain, muscle, bone or back pain, and red conjunctiva when compared to other AFI, and arthritis, joint pain, skin rash, any bleeding, and irritability, when dengue was the comparator group. Chikungunya patients were less likely than AFI and dengue patients to have low platelets, signs of poor circulation, diarrhea, headache, and cough.”


Opinion: Mandate Vaccination with Care

29 Jul, 2019 | 20:01h | UTC

WHO recommends dolutegravir as preferred HIV treatment option in all populations – World Health Organization (free)


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Clinical Practice: Measles

14 Jul, 2019 | 20:05h | UTC

Urinary Tract Infections Affect Millions. The Cures Are Faltering. – The New York Times (10 articles per month are free)

“As the infections become increasingly resistant to antibiotics, some standard treatments no longer work for an ailment that was once easily cured.”


Delayed childhood neurodevelopment and neurosensory alterations in the second year of life in a prospective cohort of ZIKV-exposed children – Nature Medicine (link to abstract – $ for full-text)

News Release: A third of children up to age 3 exposed to Zika in-utero have neurological problems – UCLA (free) AND Maternal Zika infection tied to poor development in 32% of tots – CIDRAP (free)


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Excess Antibiotic Treatment Duration and Adverse Events in Patients Hospitalized With Pneumonia: A Multihospital Cohort Study – Annals of Internal Medicine (link to abstract – $ for full-text)

Commentary: Pneumonia patients get too many antibiotics – especially as they leave the hospital – University of Michigan (free)


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Global burden of latent multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: trends and estimates based on mathematical modelling – The Lancet Infectious Diseases (free)

Commentaries: The burden of latent multidrug-resistant tuberculosis – The Lancet Infectious Diseases (free)


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Clinical Update: Syphilis

30 Jun, 2019 | 17:53h | UTC

Causes of severe pneumonia requiring hospital admission in children without HIV infection from Africa and Asia: the PERCH multi-country case-control study – The Lancet (free)

Commentaries: What the PERCH study means for future pneumonia strategies – The Lancet (free) AND Study: Viruses cause most global pediatric pneumonia – CIDRAP (free)


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IDSA Draft Lyme Disease Guidelines

30 Jun, 2019 | 17:48h | UTC

Mass Drug Administration for Scabies

28 Jun, 2019 | 07:43h | UTC

Population-level impact and herd effects following the introduction of human papillomavirus vaccination programmes: updated systematic review and meta-analysis – The Lancet (link to abstract – $ for full-text)

Commentaries: Vaccination programs substantially reduce HPV infections and precancerous cervical lesions – Laval University (free) AND Hopes raised of cervical cancer eradication – BBC (free) AND Study shows major real-world impact of cervical cancer vaccines – Reuters (free)


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Mapping the global prevalence, incidence, and mortality of Plasmodium falciparum, 2000–17: a spatial and temporal modelling study – The Lancet (free)

Related Study: Mapping the global endemicity and clinical burden of Plasmodium vivax, 2000–17: a spatial and temporal modelling study – The Lancet (free)

Invited Commentary: New malaria maps (free)

News Release: New High-Resolution Global Maps Show How to Defeat Malaria – The Malaria Atlas Project (free)

See also: The Malaria Atlas Project Website (free resources) AND Explorer Tool (free)


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Wellcome Global Monitor How does the world feel about science and health? (free PDF)

Report Summary: Wellcome Global Monitor 2018 (free)

News Release: How much does the world trust medical experts and vaccines? (free)

Commentaries: Japan and Ukraine most likely to doubt safety of vaccines – Nature (free) AND Global trust strong in healthcare, scientists, vaccines—with exceptions – CIDRAP (free) AND Eroding trust in vaccines leaves populations vulnerable, global study finds – Reuters (free) AND Vaccines: Low trust in vaccination ‘a global crisis’ – BBC (free)


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The Ongoing Ebola Epidemic in the Democratic Republic of Congo, 2018–2019 – New England Journal of Medicine (free)


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Predictors of mortality in patients with yellow fever: an observational cohort study – The Lancet Infectious Diseases (link to abstract – $ for full-text)

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Review: Hand Infections

20 May, 2019 | 15:24h | UTC

Fighting Ebola When Mourners Fight the Responders – The New York Times (10 articles per month are free)

Related: DRC Ebola cases top 1,800 amid burial team attacks – CIDRAP (free)

“An Ebola outbreak in eastern Congo — the second-largest in history — is escalating in part because locals don’t trust health workers and government officials.”


Management of Hepatitis C in 2019 – JAMA (free for a limited period)


Normal Body Temperature: A Systematic Review – Open Forum Infectious Diseases (free)

See also: Interest “Tweetorial” about the definition of a fever (thread)

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Mapping HIV prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa between 2000 and 2017 – Nature (free)

Commentaries: ‘Striking’ differences in rates of HIV/AIDS within African nations – Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (free) AND New HIV Map Offers Most Detailed Look Yet At The Epidemic – NPR (free)


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Prophylactic antibiotics in the prevention of infection after operative vaginal delivery (ANODE): a multicentre randomised controlled trial – The Lancet (free)

Invited Commentary: Antibiotics for operative vaginal delivery: practice-changing data – The Lancet (free)


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Report: Access Barriers to Antibiotics

10 May, 2019 | 04:51h | UTC

Implementation manual to prevent and control the spread of carbapenem-resistant organisms at the national and health care facility level – World Health Organization (free PDF manual and resources)

Related Systematic Review: Control of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Healthcare Facilities – Clinical Infectious Diseases (free)

See also: Prevention and Treatment of Surgical Site Infections (free guidelines on the subject)


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WHO World Immunization Week

26 Apr, 2019 | 02:12h | UTC

World Immunization Week, 24 – 30 April 2019 – World Health Organization (free resources)

See also: #vaccineswork (free text and infographics)


Optimal management after paediatric lumbar puncture: a randomized controlled trial – BMC Neurology (free)

Related Cochrane Review : Posture and fluids for preventing post‐dural puncture headache (free) AND Summary: Body position and intake of fluids for preventing headache after a lumbar puncture (free)

After a lumbar puncture in children, a shorter time (30 min) of fasting and lying supine without a pillow is not associated with a higher risk of post-lumbar puncture headache or lower back pain.


WHO: Malaria Vaccine Pilot Launched

25 Apr, 2019 | 06:35h | UTC

Review: Clostridium Difficile Infection

21 Apr, 2019 | 21:16h | UTC

Effect of ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on invasive pneumococcal disease and nasopharyngeal carriage in Kenya: a longitudinal surveillance study – The Lancet (free)

Commentaries: Population versus individual protection by pneumococcal conjugate vaccination – The Lancet (free) AND PCV10 pneumococcal vaccine has big impact in Kenya, even among unvaccinated individuals – Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health (free)


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Measles cases are up nearly 300% from last year. This is a global crisis – CNN (free)

WHO Statement: New measles surveillance data for 2019 – World Health Organization (free)

By Henrietta H Fore (executive director of UNICEF) and Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus (director general of the World Health Organization).


A Mysterious Infection, Spanning the Globe in a Climate of Secrecy – The New York Times (10 articles per month are free)

Related: CDC Guideline: Candida auris (free) AND A ‘perfect storm’ superbug: How an invasive fungus got health officials’ attention (free) AND Review: Candida auris: A rapidly emerging cause of hospital-acquired multidrug-resistant fungal infections globally (free) AND Epidemiology, Clinical Characteristics, Resistance, and Treatment of Infections by Candida Auris (free)

“The rise of Candida auris embodies a serious and growing public health threat: drug-resistant germs.”


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Global expansion and redistribution of Aedes-borne virus transmission risk with climate change – PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases (free)

Commentaries: CHART: Where Disease-Carrying Mosquitoes Will Go In The Future – NPR (free) AND Mosquito-spread diseases may endanger millions in new places due to climate change – The Guardian (free)

Related: Climate Change — A Health Emergency (free reports and commentaries on the subject)


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World Tuberculosis Day | 24 March 2019

24 Mar, 2019 | 12:59h | UTC