Open access

NEWS - Infectious Diseases

Efficacy of a single-dose regimen of inactivated whole-cell oral cholera vaccine: results from 2 years of follow-up of a randomised trial – The Lancet Infectious Diseases (free)

Invited commentary: Cholera control: one dose at a time (free)

“Our results indicate that when such emergencies occur in populations with endemic cholera, the challenges of successfully completing a two-dose regimen should not deter deployment of OCV, because older children and adults will be protected for at least 2 years by a single dose”. (via @Onisillos see Tweet)


New Guide to Infection Control in The Hospital – International Society for Infectious Diseases (free)

A free, online resource on the principles and interventions needed to reduce healthcare associated infections, with suggested control measures across different resource levels.


The global crackdown on parents who refuse vaccines for their kids has begun – VOX (free)

“Countries like Italy and Australia are tired of measles outbreaks — so they’re moving to fine anti-vaccine parents”.


Opinion: Stories about tragic flu deaths wrongly portray Tamiflu as a panacea – HealthNewsReview (free)

Related: Tamiflu and Relenza: getting the full evidence picture – Cochrane Library (free)

“The review confirms small benefits on symptom relief, namely shortening duration of symptoms by half a day on average. However, there is little evidence to support any belief that use of NIs reduces hospital admission or the risk of developing confirmed pneumonia”. (from Cochrane)


Incidence, Etiology, and Outcomes of Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Population-Based Study – Open Forum Infectious Diseases (free)

“Aside from the rare extra-pulmonary manifestations of mycoplasma (e.g., rashes, hemolysis, neurologic complications), do any of the many causes of pneumonia have distinctive clinical presentations? Probably not”. (via @PaulSaxMD see Tweet)


New Cochrane Systematic Reviews – Vaccines for Preventing Influenza and Its Complications

In Healthy Children (free) / Summary (free)

In The Elderly (free) / Summary (free)

In Immunosuppressed Adults With Cancer (free) / Summary (free)

In Healthy Adults (free) / Summary (free)


Immunogenicity of Fractional-Dose Vaccine during a Yellow Fever Outbreak — Preliminary Report – The New England Journal of Medicine (free)

A fractional dose containing one fifth of the standard dose was effective at inducing seroconversion, supporting the use of fractional-dose vaccination for outbreak control.


Trimethoprim use for urinary tract infection and risk of adverse outcomes in older patients: cohort study – The BMJ (free)

“Trimethoprim is associated with a greater risk of acute kidney injury and hyperkalaemia compared with other antibiotics used to treat UTIs, but not a greater risk of death”


The CDC Is About to Fall Off a Funding Cliff – The Atlantic (free)

“It’s already planning to pull back on work that protects the world from pandemics”.


New Series on malaria in pregnancy – The Lancet Infectious Diseases (via @Onisillos)


Comment: Putting malaria in pregnancy back in the spotlight (free registration required)

Article 1: Burden, pathology, and costs of malaria in pregnancy: new developments for an old problem (free registration required)

Article 2: Prevention of malaria in pregnancy (free registration required)

Article 3: Treatment of uncomplicated and severe malaria during pregnancy (free registration required)


Acute Myocardial Infarction after Laboratory-Confirmed Influenza Infection – New England Journal of Medicine (link to abstract – $ for full-text)

Quick Take Video Summary: Myocardial Infarction after Influenza Infection (free)

Commentaries: Flu infection raises risk of heart attack in week after diagnosis – STAT (free) AND Flu Virus Can Trigger A Heart Attack – NPR (free) AND Flu increases the risk of heart attack – Reuters (free)

The researchers identified a six-fold increased risk of heart attack in the 7 days after a flu diagnosis.


Adjunctive Glucocorticoid Therapy in Patients with Septic Shock – New England Journal of Medicine (free)

Commentaries: The Definitive Word on Steroids in Septic Shock – Emergency Medicine Literature of Note (free) AND Adrenal – The Bottom Line (free)

“For the primary outcome, there was no statistically significance difference in mortality at 90 days – 27.9% in the hydrocortisone cohort, and 28.8% with placebo. Looking at secondary outcomes, the results here tended to favor hydrocortisone – a slightly faster resolution of shock, shorter ICU stays, and, oddly, decreased transfusion requirements”. (from Emergency Medicine Literature of Note Blog)


Satellites Predict a Cholera Outbreak Weeks in Advance – Scientific American (free)

“A test in Yemen showed satellite data could foresee an outbreak four weeks before it exploded”.


2 – 2018 Edition: Let’s Talk TB (free PDF chapters) (via @paimadhu and @Onisillos)

“Let’s Talk TB is a book on the current best practices on TB diagnosis and treatment available for free for all GPs and private practitioners in India and other high-burden countries”


The use of probiotics to prevent Clostridium difficile diarrhea associated with antibiotic use – Cochrane Library (free)

See related meta-analysis: Timely Use of Probiotics in Hospitalized Adults Prevents Clostridium difficile Infection

“Based on this systematic review and meta-analysis of 31 randomized controlled trials including 8672 patients, moderate certainty evidence suggests that probiotics are effective for preventing C. difficile-associated diarrhea”


Is treatment with corticosteroids beneficial and safe for people with pneumonia? – The Cochrane Library (free)

Related: Corticosteroids for Pneumonia: Ready for Primetime? – emDocs (free)

“Corticosteroid therapy reduced mortality and morbidity in adults with severe CAP; the number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome was 18 patients (95% CI 12 to 49) to prevent one death. Corticosteroid therapy reduced morbidity, but not mortality, for adults and children with non-severe CAP”


Efficacy and safety of stress ulcer prophylaxis in critically ill patients: a network meta-analysis of randomized trials – Intensive Care Medicine (free)

“PPIs are the most effective agents in preventing CIB, but they may increase the risk of pneumonia”.


World Malaria Report 2017 – World Health Organization (free)

News release: Global response to malaria at crossroads (free)

“After unprecedented global success in malaria control, progress has stalled”


Prolonged Infusion Piperacillin-Tazobactam Decreases Mortality and Improves Outcomes in Severely Ill Patients: Results of a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis – Critical Care Medicine (link to abstract – $ for full-text)

Source: ACP Journal Wise ($)

“Receipt of prolonged infusion of piperacillin-tazobactam was associated with reduced mortality and improved clinical cure rates across diverse cohorts of severely ill patients”.


Inappropriate Management of Asymptomatic Patients With Positive Urine Cultures: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis – Open Forum Infectious Diseases (free)

“OFID: Despite guidelines, continued overtreatment of patients with positive urine cultures but no symptoms” (RT @IDSAInfo see Tweet)


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