Open access

Infectious Diseases

Efficacy and safety of stress ulcer prophylaxis in critically ill patients: a network meta-analysis of randomized trials – Intensive Care Medicine (free)

“PPIs are the most effective agents in preventing CIB, but they may increase the risk of pneumonia”.


World Malaria Report 2017 – World Health Organization (free)

News release: Global response to malaria at crossroads (free)

“After unprecedented global success in malaria control, progress has stalled”


Prolonged Infusion Piperacillin-Tazobactam Decreases Mortality and Improves Outcomes in Severely Ill Patients: Results of a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis – Critical Care Medicine (link to abstract – $ for full-text)

Source: ACP Journal Wise ($)

“Receipt of prolonged infusion of piperacillin-tazobactam was associated with reduced mortality and improved clinical cure rates across diverse cohorts of severely ill patients”.


Inappropriate Management of Asymptomatic Patients With Positive Urine Cultures: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis – Open Forum Infectious Diseases (free)

“OFID: Despite guidelines, continued overtreatment of patients with positive urine cultures but no symptoms” (RT @IDSAInfo see Tweet)


World Antibiotic Awareness Week, 13-19 November 2017: A round up of Cochrane evidence – Evidently Cochrane (free)


Is It Possible to Predict the Next Pandemic? – The Atlantic (free)

“Large initiatives are underway to pinpoint the next big viral threats—but some virologists believe the task is too hard”.


Probiotics for the Prevention of Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Outpatients—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis – Antibiotics (free)

Antibiotic-associated diarrhea ocurred in 8.0% of the probiotic group compared to 17.7% in the control group. The number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one case of diarrhea was 11 (95% CI 6 to 13).


Testing blood procalcitonin levels to decide when to start and stop antibiotics in adults with acute respiratory tract infections – Cochrane Library (free)

Original Article: Procalcitonin to initiate or discontinue antibiotics in acute respiratory tract infections – Cochrane Library (link to abstract – $ for full-text)

“the use of procalcitonin to guide initiation and duration of antibiotic treatment results in lower risks of mortality, lower antibiotic consumption, and lower risk for antibiotic-related side effects”.


Interventions for treating tuberculous pericarditis – Cochrane Library (free)

News release: Treatment for tuberculosis infection of the membrane around the heart (free)

“For HIV-negative patients, corticosteroids may reduce death. For HIV-positive patients not on antiretroviral drugs, corticosteroids may reduce constriction. For HIV-positive patients with good antiretroviral drug viral suppression, clinicians may consider the results from HIV-negative patients more relevant”.


Rapid Recommendations: Corticosteroids for sore throat: a clinical practice guideline – The BMJ (free text and infographic)

See also other Rapid Recommendations from The BMJ (all free)


Molluscum contagiosum is best left to clear by itself – NIHR Signal (free)

Original article: Interventions for cutaneous molluscum contagiosum – Cochrane Library (link to abstract – $ for full-text)

“Clinicians should advise people with a healthy immune system to leave molluscum contagiosum to clear by itself” (RT @NIHR_DC  see Tweet)


Community-acquired Pneumonia Visualized on Computed Tomography but Not Chest X-Ray: Pathogens, Severity, and Clinical Outcomes – Chest (link to abstract – $ for full-text)

Source: Hospital Medicine Virtual Journal Club (free resource to find articles of interest)

“Adults hospitalized with CAP who had radiologic evidence of pneumonia on CT but not concurrent CXR had similar pathogens, disease severity, and outcomes compared with patients who had signs of pneumonia on CXR”.


Effect of Oral Dexamethasone Without Immediate Antibiotics vs Placebo on Acute Sore Throat in Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial – JAMA (free)

Multimedia: Author Interview (free) AND JAMA Report Video (free)

Commentaries: Study Examines Effectiveness of Steroid Medication for Sore Throat – The JAMA Network (free) AND Corticosteroids for sore throat: a mixed bag of results – Clinical Advisor (free)

Source: ACP Journal Club ($)

Dexamethasone increased complete symptom resolution at 48 hours (35.4% vs 27.1%), but not at 24 hours. Trade-offs between the benefits and risks of dexamethasone in this situation are uncertain.


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