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Open access

NEWS - Chest Medicine

IOTA – Liberal vs Conservative Oxygen Therapy in the Critically Ill – The Bottom Line (free)

Original Meta-Analysis: Liberal vs Conservative Oxygen Therapy in Acutely ill Adults (link to abstract and commentary)

“Hyperoxia is BAD –> Aim for lowest safest inspired O2 in critically ill pts & titrate FiO2 down if SpO2 >95%” (via @srrezaie see Tweet)

 


E-cigarettes, Juuls and Heat-Not-Burn Devices: The Science and Regulation of Vaping – Hopkins Bloomberg Public Health Magazine (free)

E-cigarettes can help some people quit smoking but may entice others to start. So how should they be regulated?

 


Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome – New England Journal of Medicine (link to abstract – $ for full-text)

See also: NEJM Tweet with visual abstract

Commentary: Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome – The Bottom Line (free)

“There is something very disturbing about a trial with HR=0.76, 95% CI 0.55-1.04 for the primary endpoint being stopped early for futility”. This TWEETORIAL by @ADAlthousePhD is a huge help in interpreting the results of this important trial (see more on the rise of “Tweetorial” here).

 


E-cigarettes: A win or loss for public health? – Knowable Magazine (free)

Related Perspective: The Promise of Vaping and the Rise of Juul – The New Yorker (free)

See also: related guidelines, reports and commentaries on e-cigarettes (all free)

“Arguments over whether e-cigarettes are harmful or helpful seem gridlocked as emerging research underscores both the toxicity of vaping and its possible benefits”. (via @ghn_news see Tweet)

 


Clinical Practice Guideline: Chronic Asthma – Toward Optimized Practice (free PDF)

See also: Summary (free PDF)

Related: see all TOP Clinical Practice Guidelines, a practical resource for Family Physicians at the point of care.

 


Should we recommend e-cigarettes to help smokers quit? – The BMJ (free)

See also: related guidelines, reports and commentaries on e-cigarettes

“Experts debate: Should doctors recommend e-cigarettes to help smokers quit? Revelation in harm reduction or a way to keep people addicted and gateway to youth smoking?” (via @rich_hurley see Tweet)

 


Honey for acute cough in children – Cochrane Library (link to abstract – $ for full-text)

Summary: Honey for acute cough in children – Cochrane Library (free)

“Honey probably relieves cough symptoms to a greater extent than no treatment, diphenhydramine, and placebo, but may make little or no difference compared to dextromethorphan.”

 


Quantifying population-level health benefits and harms of e-cigarette use in the United States – PLOS One (free)

Commentaries: Study Suggests E-cigarettes Cause More Harm Than Good – AAFP News (free)

“Some Adults May Quit Smoking Traditional Cigarettes, But More Teens and Young Adults Will Start” (from AAFP)

 


Macrolide antibiotics for bronchiectasis – Cochrane Library (link to abstract – $ for full-text)

Summary: Macrolide antibiotics for bronchiectasis – Cochrane Library (free)

“Long-term macrolide therapy may reduce the frequency of exacerbations and improve quality of life, although supporting evidence is derived mainly from studies of azithromycin, rather than other macrolides, and predominantly among adults rather than children. However, macrolides should be used with caution, as limited data indicate an associated increase in microbial resistance”.

 


Are shorter courses of systemic steroids as effective as conventional longer courses in the treatment of patients with flare-ups of COPD? – Cochrane Library (free)

“Information from a new large study has increased our confidence that five days of oral corticosteroids is likely to be sufficient for treatment of adults with acute exacerbations of COPD”.

 


Best supportive care for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: current gaps and future directions – European Respiratory Review (free)

Publicar daqui a alguns dias e colocar link para revisões e guidelines recentes

 


Opinion: Stories about tragic flu deaths wrongly portray Tamiflu as a panacea – HealthNewsReview (free)

Related: Tamiflu and Relenza: getting the full evidence picture – Cochrane Library (free)

“The review confirms small benefits on symptom relief, namely shortening duration of symptoms by half a day on average. However, there is little evidence to support any belief that use of NIs reduces hospital admission or the risk of developing confirmed pneumonia”. (from Cochrane)

 


Incidence, Etiology, and Outcomes of Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Population-Based Study – Open Forum Infectious Diseases (free)

“Aside from the rare extra-pulmonary manifestations of mycoplasma (e.g., rashes, hemolysis, neurologic complications), do any of the many causes of pneumonia have distinctive clinical presentations? Probably not”. (via @PaulSaxMD see Tweet)

 


Extrafine inhaled triple therapy versus dual bronchodilator therapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (TRIBUTE): a double-blind, parallel group, randomised controlled trial – The Lancet (link to abstract – $ for full-text)

“Steroid-containing fine-mist triple inhaler comp with dry powder double inhaler resulting in 0.09 fewer exacerbations per year. Yup.” (via @RichardLehman1 see Tweet) See Richard Lehman’s point of view

 


Nursing interventions for smoking cessation – Cochrane Library (free)

Summary: Does support and intervention from nurses help people to stop smoking? – Cochrane Library (free)

“There’s moderate quality evidence that behavioural support to motivate & sustain smoking cessation delivered by nurses can lead to a modest increase in the number of people who achieve prolonged abstinence” (via @CochraneUK see Tweet)

 


Effect of an Indwelling Pleural Catheter vs Talc Pleurodesis on Hospitalization Days in Patients With Malignant Pleural Effusion: The AMPLE Randomized Clinical Trial – JAMA (link to abstract – $ for full-text)

Treatment with pleural catheter resulted in fewer hospitalization days from treatment to death (median, 10 vs 12 days).

 


2 – 2018 Edition: Let’s Talk TB (free PDF chapters) (via @paimadhu and @Onisillos)

“Let’s Talk TB is a book on the current best practices on TB diagnosis and treatment available for free for all GPs and private practitioners in India and other high-burden countries”

 


Does support and intervention from nurses help people to stop smoking? – Cochrane Library (free)

“There is moderate quality evidence that behavioural support to motivate and sustain smoking cessation delivered by nurses can lead to a modest increase in the number of people who achieve prolonged abstinence”.

 


Is treatment with corticosteroids beneficial and safe for people with pneumonia? – The Cochrane Library (free)

Related: Corticosteroids for Pneumonia: Ready for Primetime? – emDocs (free)

“Corticosteroid therapy reduced mortality and morbidity in adults with severe CAP; the number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome was 18 patients (95% CI 12 to 49) to prevent one death. Corticosteroid therapy reduced morbidity, but not mortality, for adults and children with non-severe CAP”

 


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