1 – Aspirin or Rivaroxaban for VTE Prophylaxis after Hip or Knee Arthroplasty – New England Journal of Medicine (link to abstract – $ for full-text)
Quick Take Video Summary: Preventing VTE after Hip or Knee Arthroplasty (free)
“Among patients who received 5 days of rivaroxaban prophylaxis after total hip or total knee arthroplasty, extended prophylaxis with aspirin was not significantly different from rivaroxaban in the prevention of symptomatic venous thromboembolism”.
Related AHA Scientific Statement: Preventing and Experiencing Ischemic Heart Disease as a Woman: State of the Science (free)
Related: Infographic: ATLS Trauma Update 2018
6 – Ischaemic stroke, haemorrhage, and mortality in older patients with chronic kidney disease newly started on anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation: a population based study from UK primary care – The BMJ (free)
Commentaries: Anticoagulants Tied With Stroke, Hemorrhage in CKD – Renal & Urology News (free) AND Could a Blood Thinner Actually Raise Stroke Risk for Some? – HealthDay (free) AND Anticoagulants for Patients with Afib and Kidney Disease? Study Yields Mixed Findings – Physician’s First Watch (free) AND Blood-thinning drugs designed to cut stroke risk may actually increase it – The Guardian (free)
“Given the lack of guidelines, the decision to start anticoagulant treatment in patients with chronic kidney disease and new onset atrial fibrillation should be made on an individual basis, concludes research” (via @bmj_latest see Tweet)
“Statistics point remorselessly towards obesity being a symptom with an underlying social cause”.
Among patients with low risk acute coronary syndrome, stress echocardiography, cardiovascular magnetic resonance, and exercise electrocardiograms resulted in fewer invasive referrals for coronary angiography than coronary computed tomographic angiography, without apparent impact on the future risk of myocardial infarction. Similarly, for outpatients with suspected stable angina, an initial strategy based on functional testing might be preferable, resulting in fewer referrals for invasive coronary angiography and revascularization, without a statistically significant difference in the future risk of MI.
Related study and commentary: Treatment of Subclinical Hypothyroidism or Hypothyroxinemia in Pregnancy – New England Journal of Medicine (free) AND Treating subclinical thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy probably has no benefit – NIHR Signal (free)
Maternal thyroid dysfunction in the first trimester had no impact on child performance at school or educational achievement.
1 – Clinical Guidelines Synopsis: Management of ARDS in Adults – JAMA (free)
Related Review: Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment – JAMA (free)
Commentaries: European experts release guidelines about high-altitude exposure for cardiovascular patients – Cardiovascular Business (free) AND A trip to the mountains despite a heart condition? – Eurac Research, via ScienceDaily (free)
Commentaries: Alcohol and dementia: a complex relationship with potential for dementia prevention – The Lancet Public Health (free) AND Expert reaction to study looking at alcohol use disorders and dementia risk – Science Media Centre (free) AND Heavy Drinking Tied to Early-Onset Dementia in French Study – MedPage Today (free registration required)
“Of 57,000 people diagnosed before age 65 with early-onset dementia, 39% had alcohol-related dementia by definition, and 18% had an additional diagnosis of alcohol use disorders” (via @medpagetoday see Tweet)
4 – Effect of Low-Fat vs Low-Carbohydrate Diet on 12-Month Weight Loss in Overweight Adults and the Association With Genotype Pattern or Insulin Secretion: The DIETFITS Randomized Clinical Trial – JAMA (link to abstract – $ for full-text)
Commentaries: Low-Carb And Low-Fat Diets Battle To A Draw – Cardiobrief (free) AND Matching DNA to a diet doesn’t work: ‘We didn’t even come close,’ researcher says – STAT (free) AND Counting Calories Is Not the Key to Weight Loss, New Study Finds – The New York Times (10 articles per month are free) AND Debating low-fat vs low-carb diets? New study found a draw – Scope (free)
Prophylactic haloperidol in this population with elevated risk of delirium did not reduce mortality or any of the 15 prespecified secondary outcomes, including delirium incidence, 28-day delirium-free and coma-free days, duration of mechanical ventilation, and ICU and hospital length of stay.
Related review: Countdown to 2030: tracking progress towards universal coverage for reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health – The Lancet (free registration required)
10 – Real-time continuous glucose monitoring in adults with type 1 diabetes and impaired hypoglycaemia awareness or severe hypoglycaemia treated with multiple daily insulin injections (HypoDE): a multicentre, randomised controlled trial – The Lancet (link to abstract – $ for full-text)
The mean number of hypoglycemic events per 28 days was reduced from 10.8 to 3.5 among patients in the continuous glucose monitoring group and from 14.4 to 13.7 among control group participants.
1 – Diagnosis, Evaluation, Prevention, and Treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease–Mineral and Bone Disorder: Synopsis of the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes 2017 Clinical Practice Guideline Update – Annals of Internal Medicine (free)
2 – Hydroxychloroquine Effectiveness in Reducing Symptoms of Hand Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Trial – Annals of Internal Medicine (link to abstract – $ for full-text)
3 – Perioperative cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET): consensus clinical guidelines on indications, organization, conduct, and physiological interpretation – British Journal of Anaesthesia (free)
4 – Short-Term Versus Long-Term Dual Antiplatelet Therapy After Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation in Elderly Patients: A Meta-Analysis of Individual Participant Data From 6 Randomized Trials – JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions (link to abstract – $ for full-text)
Short-term Dual Antiplatelet Therapy was not associated with increased risk of ischemic events in elderly patients and was associated with a significant reduction in major bleeding.
“The review confirms small benefits on symptom relief, namely shortening duration of symptoms by half a day on average. However, there is little evidence to support any belief that use of NIs reduces hospital admission or the risk of developing confirmed pneumonia”. (from Cochrane)
7 – Risk of Recurrent Disease and Surgery Following an Admission for Acute Diverticulitis – Diseases of the Colon and Rectum (link to abstract – $ for full-text)
In this large cohort of 65,162 patients identified with a first episode of acute diverticulitis, younger patients, women, smokers, obese individuals, and those who had diverticulitis with perforation and/or abscess were more likely to develop recurrent diverticulitis.
Richard Lehman reviews the latest research in the top medical journals.
9 – Review: Anaphylaxis – Chest (free)
Source: Critical Care Reviews Newsletter
“Aside from the rare extra-pulmonary manifestations of mycoplasma (e.g., rashes, hemolysis, neurologic complications), do any of the many causes of pneumonia have distinctive clinical presentations? Probably not”. (via @PaulSaxMD see Tweet)
Source: Critical Care Reviews Newsletter
3 – Systolic Blood Pressure and Outcomes in Patients With Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction – JAMA Cardiology (link to abstract – $ for full-text)
Commentaries: Aggressive Systolic Blood Pressure Control In Older Patients With HFpEF Should Be Avoided – MedicalResearch.com (free) AND Low blood pressure linked to worse outcomes in HFpEF patients – Cardiovascular Business (free)
“A systolic blood pressure level of less than 120 mm Hg identifies patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction at higher risk for short- and long-term mortality and emphasizes the need for future prospective studies to evaluate optimal systolic blood pressure treatment goals in this patient population”.
Commentaries: US study finds 36% flu vaccine protection, 25% against H3N2 – CIDRAP (free) AND Three-quarters of people who got flu shot this year weren’t protected against most common strain – STAT (free)
6 – Review: Delirium in the Cardiac Intensive Care Unit – Journal of the American Heart Association (free for a limited period)
Source: Critical Care Reviews Newsletter
7 – New Choosing Wisely Lists in Pediatrics: Four Things Physicians and Patients Should Question in Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology – Choosing Wisely Canada (free) AND Five Things Physicians and Patients Should Question in Pediatric Orthopedics – Choosing Wisely U.S. (free)
8 – Expert opinion: ‘UTI’ an overused diagnosis in the era of the microbiome – ACP Hospitalist (free)
9- Technology: Wanted: a WhatsApp alternative for clinicians – The BMJ Opinion (free)
Commentaries: Breast MRIs may lead to more biopsies that catch fewer cancers – Reuters (free) AND MRI-Based Breast Screening Leads to More Biopsies, Lower Cancer Yields – Physician’s First Watch (free)
News release: Individualized, supportive care key to positive childbirth experience, says WHO (free)
Commentary: Give women more time to give birth, make choices – WHO – Reuters (free)
2 – Clinical Practice Guidelines for Clostridium difficile Infection in Adults and Children: 2017 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) (free)
3 – Outcomes after Angiography with Sodium Bicarbonate and Acetylcysteine – New England Journal of Medicine (link to abstract – $ for full-text)
Commentaries: No benefit of sodium bicarbonate or acetylcysteine for prevention of complications after angiography: The PRESERVE trial – 2 Minute Medicine (free) AND Outcomes after Angiography with Sodium Bicarbonate and Acetylcysteine – NEJM Resident 360 (free)
“Among patients at high risk for renal complications who were undergoing angiography, there was no benefit of intravenous sodium bicarbonate over intravenous sodium chloride or of oral acetylcysteine over placebo for the prevention of death, need for dialysis, or persistent decline in kidney function at 90 days or for the prevention of contrast-associated acute kidney injury”.
4 – Review: Physical Activity in the Prevention and Treatment of Coronary Artery Disease – Journal of the American Heart Association (free for a limited period)
Editorial: Ultra-processed foods and cancer (free)
Commentaries: ‘Ultra-processed’ foods and cancer: Headlines show the right way, and the wrong way, to frame results from an observational study – HealthNewsReview (free) AND Expert reaction to study looking at highly processed foods and cancer – Science Media Centre (free)
6 – Edoxaban for the Treatment of Cancer-Associated Venous Thromboembolism – New England Journal of Medicine (link to abstract – $ for full-text)
Quick Take Video Summary: Edoxaban for Cancer-Associated Venous Thromboembolism (free)
Commentaries: Edoxaban Noninferior to Dalteparin for Cancer-Associated VTE – Physician’s First Watch (free) AND Oral Edoxaban Noninferior to Dalteparin for Cancer-Related Venous Thromboembolism – Cardiology Advisor (free)
Commentaries: Premature mortality in single fathers – The Lancet Public Health (free) AND Single fathers have highest risk of early death – OnMedica (free) AND Single Fathers Are More Likely to Die Early, Study Says – TIME (free)
Commentaries: Congenital heart defects linked to increased risk of dementia – American Heart Association News (free) AND Adult Survivors of Congenital Heart Disease at Increased Risk of Dementia – TCTMD (free)
Commentary: Genetic Risk Score May Best FH Variant for Predicting Early-Onset CAD – Medscape (free registration required)
10 – Direct Oral Anticoagulants in Addition to Antiplatelet Therapy for Secondary Prevention After Acute Coronary Syndromes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis – JAMA Cardiology (link to abstract – $ for full-text)
Commentaries: Could NOACs Have a Role for Secondary Prevention After STEMI? – TCTMD (free) AND Meta-Analysis: ACS Type Matters for DOAC Use in Secondary Prevention – MedPage Today (free registration required) AND Adding DOACs Beneficial for STEMI — Not Non-STEMI — But with Bleeding Risk – Physician’s First Watch (free)
“63 STEMI patients would need to receive a DOAC to prevent one cardiovascular event, while 96 would need to be treated to cause one major bleeding event”. (from Physician’s First Watch)
A fractional dose containing one fifth of the standard dose was effective at inducing seroconversion, supporting the use of fractional-dose vaccination for outbreak control.
3 – Medical News & Perspectives: Do All Patients Need β-Blockers After a Heart Attack? – JAMA (free for a limited period)
Commentary: New Guidelines for Treating Checkpoint Inhibitor Toxicities – Medscape (free registration required)
Relate guideline: Managing toxicities associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors: consensus recommendations from the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) Toxicity Management Working Group (free) AND Review: New drugs, new toxicities: severe side effects of modern targeted and immunotherapy of cancer and their management – Critical Care (free)
7 – New Dutch law to make all adults organ donors unless they opt out – CNN (free) AND Every Adult in This Country Is Now an Organ Donor Unless They Opt Out – TIME (free) AND Dutch law to make everyone organ donors unless they opt out – ABC News (free)
8 – Benefits and Harms of Cranial Electrical Stimulation for Chronic Painful Conditions, Depression, Anxiety, and Insomnia: A Systematic Review – Annals of Internal Medicine (link to abstract – $ for full-text)
Commentaries: Mild shock therapy may ease anxiety and depression, but not chronic pain – Reuters (free) AND Jury Still Out on CES for Depression, Anxiety, Pain, Insomnia – Medscape (free registration required)
9 – Opioid Analgesic Use and Risk for Invasive Pneumococcal Diseases: A Nested Case–Control Study – Annals of Internal Medicine (link to abstract – $ for full-text)
Commentaries: Opioids may be associated with increased risk for serious invasive pneumococcal infections – ACP Internist (free) AND Opioids For Pain Can Exacerbate Pneumococcal Infections – MedicalResearch.com (free) AND Prescription Opioid Use Tied to Higher Pneumonia Risk – MedPage Today (free registration required)
10 – Surgical site infection after gastrointestinal surgery in high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries: a prospective, international, multicentre cohort study – The Lancet Infectious Diseases (free)
Commentaries: Surgical site infection—the next frontier in global surgery – The Lancet Infectious Diseases (free) AND Poor nations have higher risk of surgical infections, including resistant ones – CIDRAP (free)
News release: Updated and expanded guidance for family planning providers worldwide (free)
Source: Antiarrhythmics: multinational consensus recommendations – Univadis (free registration required)
Editorials: Screening for Ovarian Cancer in Asymptomatic Women (free) AND The Yet Unrealized Promise of Ovarian Cancer Screening (free) AND Is There a Future for Ovarian Cancer Screening? (free)
Author interview: USPSTF Recommendation: Screening for Ovarian Cancer (free audio)
“The USPSTF recommends against screening for ovarian cancer in asymptomatic women. (D recommendation) This recommendation applies to asymptomatic women who are not known to have a high-risk hereditary cancer syndrome”.
Commentaries: Risk of Psychotic Experiences Up With Teen Cannabis Use – Physician’s Briefing (free) AND Teen Pot Use Linked to Increased Risk for Psychotic Episodes – MedPage Today (free registration required)
5 – Randomized Trial of Dexamethasone Versus Prednisone for Children with Acute Asthma Exacerbations – The Journal of Pediatrics (link to abstract – $ for full-text)
Commentary: Asthma Exacerbation in Kids: A Trial of Two Steroids – Medscape (free registration required)
Related meta-analysis: Dexamethasone for Acute Asthma Exacerbations in Children: A Meta-analysis – Pediatrics (free PDF)
Related study in adults: A Randomized Controlled Noninferiority Trial of Single Dose of Oral Dexamethasone Versus 5 Days of Oral Prednisone in Acute Adult Asthma – Annals of Emergency Medicine (link to abstract – $ for full-text) AND Commentary: Single Dose Dexamethasone or 5 Days of Prednisone in Adult Asthmatics? – R.E.B.E.L.EM commentary (free full-text)
7 – In Sweeping War on Obesity, Chile Slays Tony the Tiger – The New York Times (10 articles per month are free)
Commentaries: Study reveals substantial impact of chronic diseases on cancer risk – eCancer News (free) AND Chronic Disease Linked To Increased Risk of Cancer and Cancer Death – MedicalResearch.com (free) AND Double Trouble: These Diseases Could Raise Your Risk for Cancer – Live Science (free) AND Higher cancer risk from chronic diseases – OnMedica (free)
Related Guideline: Integration of Palliative Care Into Standard Oncology Care: American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline Update (free) AND Commentary: Concurrent Palliative Care: Recommendations From the ASCO Clinical Practice Guideline – The ASCO Post (free)
Related: The Fake Hypertension War: Medical politics and mud fights – MedPage Today (free registration required)
6 – Opinion: Heart Stents Are Useless for Most Stable Patients. They’re Still Widely Used – The New York Times (10 articles per month are free)
7 – State of The Art Review: The role of robotics in colorectal surgery – The BMJ (free for a limited period)
Richard Lehman reviews the latest research in the top medical journals.
“Trimethoprim is associated with a greater risk of acute kidney injury and hyperkalaemia compared with other antibiotics used to treat UTIs, but not a greater risk of death”
10 – FIGO consensus guidelines on placenta accreta spectrum disorders – International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics
– Introduction (free)
– Epidemiology (free)
– Prenatal Diagnosis and Screening (free)
– Nonconservative surgical management (free)
2 – Environmental Noise and the Cardiovascular System – Journal of the American College of Cardiology (free for a limited period)
Commentaries: Everyday noises may cause increased risk of heart disease, experts say – ABC News (free) AND How Loud Noise Exposure Is Linked to Heart Disease – TIME (free) AND Traffic Noise Linked to Increased CVD Risk – Medscape (free registration required) AND Heart & hearing: Noise pollution tied to higher risk of stroke, MI – Cardiovascular Business (free)
Related: Energy and sports drinks in children and adolescents – Canadian Paediatric Society (free) AND Health Effects and Public Health Concerns of Energy Drink Consumption in the United States: A Mini-Review – Frontiers in Public Health (free)
4 – New Cochrane Systematic Reviews – Vaccines for Preventing Influenza and Its Complications
Commentaries: Flu-like illness in US reaches 2009 pandemic levels – CIDRAP (free) AND Flu Is Causing 1 in 10 American Deaths and Climbing – Bloomberg (free) AND This Flu Season Is the Worst in Nearly a Decade – The New York Times (10 articles per month are free)
Commentaries: Study: vaccines prevent not just disease, but also poverty – The Vaccine Alliance (free) AND For world’s poorest, vaccines prevent deaths, medical impoverishment – Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health (free)
Commentary: New Guidelines Outline Management of Immunotherapy Side Effects – MedPage Today (free registration required) AND SITC Spearheads Initiative for Management of Immunotherapy-Related Side Effects – The ASCO Post (free)
10 – Draft Recommendation Statement: Screening Syphilis Infection in Pregnant Women – U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (free)
Commentaries: USPSTF Recommends Screening Pregnant Women for Syphilis – American Academy of Family Physicians (free) AND USPSTF: Screening for Syphilis in Pregnant Women Beneficial – MPR (free) AND Syphilis Rising In Newborns, Pregnant Moms: USPSTF Reaffirms Mandatory Testing – American Council on Science and Health (free)
2 – Free online course. Starts 12 February 2018. The Lancet Maternal Health Series: Global Research and Evidence – London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, via Future Learn
“Hear the latest expert evidence from The Lancet Maternal Health Series and learn what you can do to improve maternal healthcare”.
Editorial: The failure of anti-obesity programmes in schools (free)
“In the words of Winston Churchill, “However beautiful the strategy, you should occasionally look at the results.”” (from editorial)
5 – Update: Stroke in Women: Recognizing Opportunities for Prevention and Treatment – Stroke (free PDF for a limited period)
6 – Update: Impact of Conventional Stroke Risk Factors on Stroke in Women – Stroke (free PDF for a limited period)
7 – Update: Stroke Risk Factors Unique to Women – Stroke (free PDF for a limited period)
Infographic: The vital first 10 minutes (free PDF)
Even slight changes within the normal Apgar score range (7-10) from five to 10 minutes have a major influence in the risks of cerebral palsy and epilepsy.
9 – Management of patients on antithrombotic agents undergoing emergency and elective endoscopy: joint Asian Pacific Association of Gastroenterology (APAGE) and Asian Pacific Society for Digestive Endoscopy (APSDE) practice guidelines – Gut (free)
10 – Effectiveness of Family Integrated Care in neonatal intensive care units on infant and parent outcomes: a multicentre, multinational, cluster-randomised controlled trial – The Lancet child & Adolescent Health (link to abstract – $ for full-text)
Commentaries: Premature babies healthier when parents help with hospital care, study shows – The Guardian (free) AND Preemies Fared Better When Parents Helped with NICU Care – MedPage Today (free registration required) AND Parents’ care can help premature babies in hospital, says study – BBC News (free)